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ID 115917
Author
Nishimoto, Sachiko Tokushima University
Keywords
Toll-like receptor 9
Cell-free DNA
Inflammation
Cardiometabolic disorders
Content Type
Journal Article
Description
Growing evidence suggests that damage-associated molecule patterns (DAMPs) and their receptors, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), are associated with the progression of cardiometabolic disorders, including obesity-related insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Cardiometabolic disorders share sterile chronic inflammation as a major cause; however, the exact mechanisms are still obscure. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), one of the nucleic acid-sensing TLRs, recognizes DNA fragments derived from pathogens and contributes to self-defense by activation of the innate immune system. In addition, previous studies demonstrated that TLR9 recognizes DNA fragments released from host cells, accelerating sterile inflammation, which is associated with inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune diseases. In obese adipose tissue and atherosclerotic vascular tissue, various stresses release DNA fragments and/or nuclear proteins as DAMPs from degenerated adipocytes and vascular cells. Recent studies indicated that the activation of TLR9 in immune cells including macrophages and dendritic cells by recognition of these DAMPs promotes inflammation in these tissues, which causes cardiometabolic disorders. This review discusses recent advances in understanding the role of sterile inflammation associated with TLR9 and its endogenous ligands in cardiometabolic disorders. New insights into innate immunity may provide better understanding of cardiometabolic disorders and new therapeutic options for these major health threats in recent decades.
Journal Title
Inflammation and Regeneration
ISSN
18808190
Publisher
BioMed Central|Springer Nature
Volume
40
Start Page
18
Published Date
2020-07-21
Rights
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
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DOI (Published Version)
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FullText File
ir_40_18.pdf 1.96 MB
language
eng
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departments
Medical Sciences