Opsin 3-Related Genes in Chicken Retina and Brain
Kato, Mutsuko Okayama University
Sugiyama, Takashi Olympus Corporation
Sakai, Kazumi Kyoto University
Yamashita, Takahiro Kyoto University
Fujita, Hirofumi Okayama University
Sato, Keita Okayama University
Tomonari, Sayuri Tokushima University
Shichida, Yoshinori Kyoto University
Ohuchi, Hideyo Okayama University
Opsin family genes encode G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane proteins that bind a retinaldehyde chromophore in photoreception. Here, we sought potential as yet undescribed avian retinal photoreceptors, focusing on Opsin 3 homologs in the chicken. We found two Opsin 3-related genes in the chicken genome: one corresponding to encephalopsin/panopsin (Opn3) in mammals, and the other belonging to the teleost multiple tissue opsin (TMT) 2 group. Bioluminescence imaging and G protein activation assays demonstrated that the chicken TMT opsin (cTMT) functions as a blue light sensor when forced-expressed in mammalian cultured cells. We did not detect evidence of light sensitivity for the chicken Opn3 (cOpn3). In situ hybridization demonstrated expression of cTMT in subsets of differentiating cells in the inner retina and, as development progressed, predominant localization to retinal horizontal cells (HCs). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed cTMT in HCs as well as in small numbers of cells in the ganglion and inner nuclear layers of the post-hatch chicken retina. In contrast, cOpn3-IR cells were found in distinct subsets of cells in the inner nuclear layer. cTMT-IR cells were also found in subsets of cells in the hypothalamus. Finally, we found differential distribution of cOpn3 and cTMT proteins in specific cells of the cerebellum. The present results suggest that a novel TMT-type opsin 3 may function as a photoreceptor in the chicken retina and brain.
Copyright: © 2016 Kato et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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