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Bioelectrical impedance analysis
Critically ill patients
Background: Skeletal muscle atrophy commonly occurs in critically ill patients, and decreased muscle mass is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Muscle mass can be assessed using various tools, including ultrasound and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). However, the effectiveness of muscle mass monitoring is unclear in critically ill patients. This study was conducted to compare ultrasound and BIA for the monitoring of muscle mass in critically ill patients.
Methods: We recruited adult patients who were expected to undergo mechanical ventilation for > 48 h and to remain in the intensive care unit (ICU) for > 5 days. On days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10, muscle mass was evaluated using an ultrasound and two BIA devices (Bioscan: Malton International, England; Physion: Nippon Shooter, Japan). The influence of fluid balance was also evaluated between each measurement day.
Results: We analyzed 93 images in 21 patients. The age of the patients was 69 (interquartile range, IQR, 59–74) years, with 16 men and 5 women. The length of ICU stay was 11 days (IQR, 9–25 days). The muscle mass, monitored by ultrasound, decreased progressively by 9.2% (95% confidence interval (CI), 5.9–12.5%), 12.7% (95% CI, 9.3–16.1%), 18.2% (95% CI, 14.7–21.6%), and 21.8% (95% CI, 17.9–25.7%) on days 3, 5, 7, and 10 (p < 0.01), respectively, with no influence of fluid balance (r = 0.04, p = 0.74). The muscle mass did not decrease significantly in both the BIA devices (Bioscan, p = 0.14; Physion, p = 0.60), and an influence of fluid balance was observed (Bioscan, r = 0.37, p < 0.01; Physion, r = 0.51, p < 0.01). The muscle mass assessment at one point between ultrasound and BIA was moderately correlated (Bioscan, r = 0.51, p < 0.01; Physion, r = 0.37, p < 0.01), but the change of muscle mass in the same patient did not correlate between these two devices (Bioscan, r = − 0.05, p = 0.69; Physion, r = 0.23, p = 0.07).
Conclusions: Ultrasound is suitable for sequential monitoring of muscle atrophy in critically ill patients. Monitoring by BIA should be carefully interpreted owing to the influence of fluid change.
Journal of Intensive Care
BioMed Central|Springer Nature
© The Author(s). 2019 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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