Total for the last 12 months
number of access : ?
number of downloads : ?
ID 118074
Title Alternative
Low Back Pain and Lumbar Degeneration
Okada, Ryo Tokushima University
Inokuchi, Takashi Tokushima University
low back pain
lumbar disc herniation
discogenic pain
Pfirrmann grade
Content Type
Journal Article
Background: Baseball is one of the most popular sports in Asia. It is known that baseball can easily lead to back pain. However, there has been no survey of low back pain (LBP) and lumbar disc degeneration in Japanese professional baseball players to date.
Purpose: To investigate the cause of LBP and lumbar degeneration in professional Japanese baseball players.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of Japanese professional baseball players with LBP who visited our hospital. Data were collected from July 2018 to April 2021. We also investigated whether the results differed between players in their 20s and 30s or between pitchers and fielders. Data analysis was performed using the chi-square test.
Results: We surveyed 32 professional baseball players. The most frequent causes of LBP among players in their 20s (n = 21) were lumbar disc herniation (LDH; 57%) and spondylolysis (24%). Of the players with spondylolysis, 50% had adult-onset spondylolysis. Players in their 30s (n = 11) most commonly had discogenic pain (55%) as well as LDH and facet joint arthritis (each 18%). The incidence of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration was significantly higher in players in their 30s (91%) than those in their 20s (14%), as was the incidence of Schmorl nodes and Modic type 1 changes. There was no significant difference in the cause of LBP or the incidence of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration between pitchers and fielders (P = .59).
Conclusion: Among professional baseball players in their 20s, lumbar degeneration was less common, and they most frequently developed diseases less related to degeneration, such as LDH. However, among players in their 30s, lumbar degeneration was more advanced, and degenerative diseases such as discogenic pain occurred more frequently. Research on training methods could lead to the prevention of LBP. Our data may be applicable to other professional athletes and will contribute to diagnosis and treatment.
Journal Title
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine|SAGE Publishing
Published Date
This open-access article is published and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial - No Derivatives License (, which permits the noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction of the article in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. You may not alter, transform, or build upon this article without the permission of the Author(s). For article reuse guidelines, please visit SAGE’s website at
DOI (Published Version)
URL ( Publisher's Version )
FullText File
Medical Sciences
University Hospital