Tsuji, Akihiko Tokushima University Tokushima University Educator and Researcher Directory KAKEN Search Researchers
Kuwamura, Shuji Tokushima University
Shirai, Akihiro Tokushima University Tokushima University Educator and Researcher Directory KAKEN Search Researchers
Yuasa, Keizo Tokushima University KAKEN Search Researchers
The digestive fluid of the sea hare Aplysia kurodai can liberate approximately 2.5 mg of glucose from 10 mg of dried Eisenia bicyclis powder. Although laminaran, a major storage polysaccharide in E. bicyclis, is easily digested to glucose by the synergistic action of the 110 and 210 kDa A. kurodai β-glucosidases (BGLs), glucose is not liberated from E. bicyclis by direct incubation with these BGLs. To clarify this discrepancy, we searched for an Eisenia hydrolysis enhancing protein (EHEP) in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai. A novel 25 kDa protein that enhances E. bicyclis saccharification by β-glucosidases was purified to a homogeneous state from the digestive fluid of A. kurodai, and its cDNA was cloned from total cDNAs reverse-transcribed from hepatopancreas total RNA. The E. bicyclis extract strongly inhibited BGLs, suggesting some compound within this brown alga functioned as a feeding deterrent. However, when E. bicyclis was incubated with BGLs in the presence of EHEP, glucose production was markedly increased. As E. bicyclis is rich in phlorotannin, which are only found in brown algae, our study suggested that these compounds are the main BGL inhibitors in E. bicyclis extract. EHEP protects BGLs from phlorotannin inhibition by binding to phlorotannins and forming an insoluble complex with phloroglucinol and phlorotannins. These findings indicated that EHEP plays a key role in the saccharification of brown seaweeds containing phlorotannins in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai. This is the first report of EHEP as a phlorotannin-binding protein that protects BGLs from inhibition.
© 2017 Tsuji et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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pone_12_1_e0170669.pdf 5.86 MB
Bioscience and Bioindustry