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Glioblastoma multiforme involves glioma stem cells (GSCs) that are resistant to various therapeutic approaches. Here, we studied the importance of paracrine signaling in the glioma microenvironment by focusing on the celecoxib-mediated role of chemokines C–C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), C-X-C ligand 10 (CXCL10), and their receptors, CCR2 and CXCR3, in GSCs and a GSC-bearing malignant glioma model. C57BL/6 mice were injected with orthotopic GSCs intracranially and divided into groups administered either 10 or 30 mg/kg celecoxib, or saline to examine the antitumor effects associated with chemokine expression. In GSCs, we analyzed cell viability and expression of chemokines and their receptors in the presence/absence of celecoxib. In the malignant glioma model, celecoxib exhibited antitumor effects in a dose dependent manner and decreased protein and mRNA levels of Ccl2 and CxcL10 and Cxcr3 but not of Ccr2. CCL2 and CXCL10 co-localized with Nestin+ stem cells, CD16+ or CD163+ macrophages and Iba-1+ microglia. In GSCs, celecoxib inhibited Ccl2 and Cxcr3 expression in a nuclear factor-kappa B-dependent manner but not Ccr2 and CxcL10. Moreover, Ccl2 silencing resulted in decreased GSC viability. These results suggest that celecoxib-mediated regulation of the CCL2/CCR2 and CXCL10/ CXCR3 axes may partially contribute to glioma-specific antitumor effects.
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