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End-stage kidney disease
Background: Immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease characterized by immunoglobulin G4-positive plasma cell-rich tubulointerstitial nephritis has distinctive serological and radiological findings. Renal prognosis is good because of a good response to glucocorticoids. Here we report a case of successful treatment of highly advanced immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease presenting renal mass-like regions with end-stage kidney failure.
Case Presentation: A 59-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital because of uremia with a creatinine level of 12.36 mg/dL. Urinalysis revealed mild proteinuria and hyperβ2microglobulinuria, and blood tests showed hyperglobulinemia with an IgG level of 3243 mg/dL and an IgG4 level of 621 mg/dL. Non-contrast computed tomography revealed renal mass-like regions. Based on the findings, immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease was suspected, however, further radiological examination showed unexpected results. Ga-67 scintigraphy showed no kidney uptake. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed high-intensity signals which corresponded to mass-like regions and multiple patchy low-intensity signals in kidney cortex. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease by renal pathology of severe immunoglobulin G4-positive plasma cellrich tubulointerstitial nephritis and characteristic fibrosis. He received 50 mg oral prednisolone, which was tapered with a subsequent decrease of serum creatinine and IgG4 levels. One year after initiation of treatment, he achieved normalization of serum IgG4 level and proteinuria, and remained off dialysis with a creatinine level of 3.50 mg/dL. After treatment with steroids, repeat imaging suggested bilateral severe focal atrophy. However, mass-like regions did not show atrophic change although renal atrophy was evident in patchy low-intensity lesions on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. These findings suggest that multiple patchy low-intensity signals and high-intensity mass-like regions were mildly atrophic lesions of immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease due to severe fibrosis and normal parts of kidney, respectively.
Conclusions: In immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease with severe kidney failure, radiological findings should be carefully examined. In addition, renal prognosis may be good despite highly advanced tubulointerstitial nephritis and fibrosis.
Springer Nature|BioMed Central
© The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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