Hasan, Mahadi Kanazawa University
Khatun, Anowara Tokushima University
biological macromolecular drugs
Over the last few decades, biological macromolecular drugs (e.g., peptides, proteins, and nucleic acids) have become a significant therapeutic modality for the treatment of various diseases. These drugs are considered superior to small-molecule drugs because of their high specificity and favorable safety profiles. However, such drugs are limited by their low oral bioavailability and short half-lives. Biological macromolecular drugs are typically administrated via invasive methods, e.g., intravenous or subcutaneous injections, which can be painful and induce needle phobia. Noninvasive transdermal delivery is an alternative administration route for the local and systemic delivery of biological macromolecular drugs. However, a challenge with the noninvasive transdermal delivery of biological macromolecular drugs is the outermost layer of the skin, known as the stratum corneum, which is a physical barrier that restricts the entry of extraneous macromolecules. Iontophoresis (IP) relies on the application of a low level of electricity for transdermal drug delivery, in order to facilitate the skin permeation of hydrophilic and charged molecules. The IP of several biological macromolecular drugs has recently been investigated. Herein, we review the IP-mediated noninvasive transdermal delivery of biological macromolecular drugs, their routes of skin permeation, their underlying mechanisms, and their advance applications.
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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