Maekawa, Hidetsugu Tokushima University
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Hashimoto, Tomoki University of California
selective estrogen receptor modulator
Thesis or Dissertation
Background: Estrogen deficiency is thought to be responsible for the higher frequency of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in post- than premenopausal women. Estrogen replacement therapy appears to reduce this risk but is associated with significant side effects. We tested our hypothesis that bazedoxifene, a clinically used selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator with fewer estrogenic side effects, reduces cerebral aneurysm rupture in a new model of ovariectomized rats.
Methods: Ten-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ovariectomy, hemodynamic changes, and hypertension to induce aneurysms (ovariectomized aneurysm rats) and treated with vehicle or with 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg/day bazedoxifene. They were compared with sham-ovariectomized rats subjected to hypertension and hemodynamic changes (HT rats). The vasoprotective effects of bazedoxifene and the mechanisms underlying its efficacy were analyzed.
Results: During 12 weeks of observation, the incidence of aneurysm rupture was 52% in ovariectomized rats. With no effect on the blood pressure, treatment with 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg/day bazedoxifene lowered this rate to 11 and 17%, almost the same as in HT rats (17%). In ovariectomized rats, the mRNA level of ERα, ERβ, and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 was downregulated in the cerebral artery prone to rupture at 5 weeks after aneurysm induction; the mRNA level of interleukin-1β and the matrix metalloproteinase-9 was upregulated. In HT rats, bazedoxifene restored the mRNA level of ERα and ERβ and decreased the level of interleukin-1β and matrix metalloproteinase-9. These findings suggest that bazedoxifene was protective against aneurysmal rupture by alleviating the vascular inflammation and degradation exacerbated by the decrease in ERα and ERβ.
Conclusions: Our observation that bazedoxifene decreased the incidence of aneurysmal rupture in ovariectomized rats warrants further studies to validate this response in humans.
Journal of Neuroinflammation
本論文は, 著者Hidetsugu Maekawaの学位論文として提出され, 学位審査・授与の対象となっている。
© The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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Doctor of Medical Science