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ID 114905
Title Alternative
Viewing Targets in Infantile Nystagmus
Imai, Takao Osaka University
Takimoto, Yasumitsu Osaka Police Hospital
Okumura, Tomoko Osaka University
Higashi-Shingai, Kayoko Yao Municipal Hospital
Kitamura, Koji Osaka University
Fujikado, Takashi Osaka University
Hirota, Masakazu Osaka University
Midoh, Yoshihiro Osaka University
Nakamae, Koji Osaka University
Inohara, Hidenori Osaka University
infantile nystagmus
three-dimensional analysis
optokinetic nystagmus
vestibulo-ocular reflex
Content Type
Journal Article
The aim of this study was to propose a new pathophysiological hypothesis for involuntary eye oscillation in infantile nystagmus (IN): patients with IN exhibit impaired gaze fixation, horizontal smooth pursuit and optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and use saccadic eye movements for these underlying impairments. In order to induce saccades, they make enough angle between gaze and target by precedent exponential slow eye movements. IN consists of the alternate appearance of the saccade and the slow eye movements. Unlike most previous theories, IN is therefore considered a necessary strategy allowing for better vision and not an obstacle to clear vision. In five patients with IN, eye movements were analyzed during the smooth pursuit test, saccadic eye movement test, OKN test and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) test. Their gaze fixation, horizontal smooth pursuit, OKN and the last half of the slow phase of VOR were impaired. The lines obtained by connection of the end eye positions of fast phase of nystagmus coincided with the trajectories of targets. The findings indicate that patients followed the target by the fast but not the slow phase of nystagmus, which supports our hypothesis. By setting the direction of slow phase of nystagmus opposite to the direction of the OKN stimulation, enough angle can be effectively made between the gaze and target for the induction of saccade. This is the mechanism of reversed OKN response. In darkness and when eyes are closed, IN weakens because there is no visual target and neither the saccade for catching up the target or slow phase for induction of the saccade is needed.
Journal Title
Frontiers in Neurology
Frontiers Media S.A.
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© 2018 Imai, Takimoto, Okumura, Higashi-Shingai, Takeda, Kitamura, Kalubi, Fujikado, Hirota, Midoh, Nakamae and Inohara. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY)( The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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Medical Sciences