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ID 117187
Muneta, Tetsuo Muneta Maternity Clinic
Hayashi, Miho Japan Low Carbohydrate Diet Promotion Association
Nagai, Yasushi Nagai Mothers Hospital
Matsumoto, Momoyo Nagai Mothers Hospital
Ebe, Koji Takao Hospital
Watanabe, Hiroko Osaka University
Watanabe, Shaw Tokyo University of Agriculture
3-hydroxybutyric acid
Ketone bodies fetus
Umbilical cord
Cerebrospinal fluid
Gestational diabetes
Content Type
Journal Article
Background: Authors successfully treated gestational diabetes by a very low carbohydrate diet without insulin and other drugs. Increased ketone bodies seemed to play an essential role in energy metabolism, and the fetus and newborn also showed hyperketosis. It is necessary to clarify how much ketone bodies were present in the placenta and umbilical cord in the fetus and newborn and the pregnant mother with or without gestational diabetes.
Subjects and Methods: All cases were patients of Muneta OB/GYN Clinic in Chiba, where about 700 deliveries were done every year, 90% normal and 10% gestational diabetic. Blood of 313 mothers and babies at health check-up postpartum, 192 samples of placenta and cord blood at the delivery, and 122 cases were obtained at the time of miscarriage. Abbott's kit measured βHB, and 101 samples obtained at the post partem health check-up were biochemically analyzed for both βHB and glucose. The IBM-SPSS did the statistical analysis.
Results: βHB in Mothers' and newborns' blood at four days postpartum was 0.062 and 0.244 mmole/L (median), respectively, and glucose was 4.55±0.81 mmole/L. βHB was high throughout the pregnancy; In the placenta, βHB in the first-, second-and-third trimester was 1.95±0.9 mmole/L, 2.82±0.49 mmole/L, 1.87±0,65 mM/L, respectively. In the cord blood, it was 2.3±1.13 mmole/L, 1.36±0.76 mmole/L, and 0.69±0.6 mmole/L, respectively. Placental βHB at the delivery was 1.99±0.78 mmole/L, and that of the umbilical cord was 0.75±0.36 mmole/L. In the first trimester miscarriage, βHB in spontaneous abortion was 1.84±0.85 mmole/L, while it was 2.09±0.94 mmole/L in artificial abortion. Aborted cases in the second trimester showed 1.96±0.38 mmole/L βHB and 3.74±0.75 mmole/L glucose in the cerebrospinal fluid.
Discussion: Our data showed βHB and glucose concentration in the human fetus and newborn under the normal physiological condition. βHB was present in the placenta and umbilical cord blood throughout fetal life and after birth. Different concentrations between the placenta and umbilical cord blood suggested the fetus's uptake for energy and intrauterine growth. High βHB in the cerebrospinal fluid suggested the effects on neuronal development.
Journal Title
International Journal of Diabetes
SciTech Central
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Medical Sciences