HIV-1 Derivatives in Rhesus Macaques
Miura, Tomoyuki Kyoto University
Mori, Hiromi Kyoto University
Sakawaki, Hiromi Kyoto University
A major issue for present HIV-1 research is to establish model systems that reflect or mimic viral replication and pathogenesis actually observed in infected humans. To this end, various strategies using macaques as infection targets have long been pursued. In particular, experimental infections of rhesus macaques by HIV-1 derivatives have been believed to be best suited, if practicable, for studies on interaction of HIV-1 and humans under various circumstances. Recently, through in vitro genetic manipulations and viral cell-adaptations, we have successfully generated a series of HIV-1 derivatives with CXCR4-tropism or CCR5-tropism that grow in macaque cells to various degrees. Of these viruses, those with best replicative potentials can grow comparably with a pathogenic SIVmac in macaque cells by counteracting major restriction factors TRIM5, APOBEC3, and tetherin proteins. In this study, rhesus macaques were challenged with CXCR4-tropic (MN4/LSDQgtu) or CCR5-tropic (gtu + A4CI1) virus. The two viruses were found to productively infect rhesus macaques, being rhesus macaque-tropic HIV-1 (HIV-1rmt). However, plasma viral RNA was reduced to be an undetectable level in infected macaques at 5–6 weeks post-infection and thereafter. While replicated similarly well in rhesus peripheral blood mononuclear cells, MN4/LSDQgtu grew much better than gtu + A4CI1 in the animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that HIV-1 derivatives (variants) grow in rhesus macaques. These viruses certainly constitute firm bases for generating HIV-1rmt clones pathogenic for rhesus monkeys, albeit they grow more poorly than pathogenic SIVmac and SHIV clones reported to date.
Frontiers in Microbiology
Frontiers Media S.A.
Copyright © 2018 Doi, Miura, Mori, Sakawaki, Koma, Adachi and Nomaguchi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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