Lila, Amr S. Abu Tokushima University|Zagazig University|Hail University
Moriyoshi, Naoto Tokushima University
Fukushima, Masakazu Tokushima University
Huang, Cheng-Long Kyoto University
Wada, Hiromi Kyoto University
Short hairpin RNA
Metronomic chemotherapy is currently considered an emerging therapeutic option in clinical oncology. S-1, an oral formulation of Tegafur (TF), a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is designed to improve the antitumor activity of 5-FU in tandem with reducing its toxicity. Clinically, metronomic S-1 dosing has been approved for the standard first- and second-line treatment of metastatic or advanced stage of colorectal (CRC). However, expression of intratumor thymidylate synthase (TS), a significant gene in cellular proliferation, is associated with poor outcome to 5-FU-based chemotherapeutic regimens. In this study, therefore, we examined the effect of a combination of TS silencing by an RNA interfering molecule, chemically synthesized short hairpin RNA against TS (shTS), and 5-FU on the growth of human colorectal cancer cell (DLD-1) both in vitro and in vivo. The combined treatment of both shTS with 5-FU substantially inhibited cell proliferation in vitro. For in vivo treatments, the combined treatment of metronomic S-1 dosing with intravenously injected polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated shTS-lipoplex significantly suppressed tumor growth, compared to a single treatment of either S-1 or PEG-coated shTS-lipoplex. In addition, the combined treatment increased the proportion of apoptotic cells in the DLD-1 tumor tissue. Our results suggest that metronomic S-1 dosing combined with TS silencing might represent an emerging therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with advanced CRC.
© 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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