OK-432 is a potent immunotherapy agent for several types of cancer, including oral cancer. We previously reported that OK-432 treatment can induce the production of high levels of IFN-γ from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, the IFN-γ production from PBMCs by OK-432 is impaired by conditioned media (CM) from oral cancer cells. To determine the inhibitory mechanism of IFN-γ production by CM, the genes involved in IFN-γ production was retrieved by cDNA microarray analysis. We found that CD40 played a key role in IFN-γ production via IL-12 production. Although the expression levels of CD40 were upregulated by OK-432 treatment in PBMCs, CM inhibited OK-432-induced CD40 expression. These findings suggest that uncertain soluble factor(s) in CM may suppress IFN-γ production via the CD40/CD40L–IL-12 axis in PBMCs.
(1) Background: OK-432 is a penicillin-killed, lyophilized formulation of a low-toxicity strain (Su) of Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A). It is a potent immunotherapy agent for several types of cancer, including oral cancer. We previously showed that (i) OK-432 treatment induces a high amount of IFN-γ production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and (ii) conditioned medium (CM) from oral cancer cells suppresses both the IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity of PBMCs driven by OK-432. The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory mechanism of OK-432-induced IFN-γ production from PBMCs by CM. (2) Methods: We performed cDNA microarray analysis, quantitative RT-PCR, and ELISA to reveal the inhibitory mechanism of CM. (3) Results: We found that CD40 plays a key role in IFN-γ production via IL-12 production. Although OK-432 treatment upregulated the expression levels of the IL-12p40, p35, and CD40 genes, CM from oral cancer cells downregulate these genes. The amount of IFN-γ production by OK-432 treatment was decreased by an anti-CD40 neutralizing antibody. (4) Conclusions: Our study suggests that uncertain soluble factor(s) produced from oral cancer cells may inhibit IFN-γ production from PBMCs via suppressing the CD40/CD40L–IL-12 axis.
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
cancers_13_13_3301.pdf 2.33 MB