Drug evaluation using pharmacologically induced aortic dissection prone model mice
large medical databases
Aortic dissection (or dissecting aortic aneurysm) is a condition in which the aortic wall is separated into two layers at the medial level to form a pseudocavity. The intima crack, called the “entry”, allows blood to tear through the medial layer and flow in. The location of the “entry” and the extent of the dissection can cause a variety of serious complications, including rupture, cardiac tamponade, and obstruction of branched vessels. According to the Guideline on Diagnosis and Treatment of Aortic Aneurysm and Aortic Dissection 2020, it is estimated that 61.4% of the onset of dissection die before arrival at the hospital, and 93% will die within 24 hours after the onset. It has been suggested that the morbidity rate has been increasing in recent years. Since many of them have a fatal prognosis, it is an important issue to prevent the onset itself. However, no effective therapeutic agent or preventive strategy has been established so far. The first reason is that it is extremely difficult to design clinical studies because aortic dissection traced the rapid onset and progression. The second is that the pathophysiology and preventive drug search are not sufficiently conducted even at the basic research level. Epidemiologically, the results of the International Registry of Aortic Dissection (IRAD) revealed that aging, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and hereditary connective tissue diseases are risk factors. The aortic aneurysm also shows similar pathological conditions caused by these risk factors. However, one of the major differences between aneurysm and dissection is the presence of aortic intima rupture. Therefore, we attempted to establish a mouse model developing dissection at a high rate by adding the endothelial dysfunction to a pharmacologically induced aortic aneurysm model mouse. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of pitavastatin and several nutrients using our novel model mice and verified its usefulness as a model animal.
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