Ganbaatar, Byambasuren Tokushima University
Pham, Phuong Tran Tokushima University
Aini, Kunduziayi Tokushima University
Rahadian, Arief Tokushima University
Background and Aims
The Mediterranean diet, which is characterized by high consumption of olive oil, prevents cardiovascular disease. Meanwhile, olive mill wastewater (OMWW), which is obtained as a byproduct during olive oil production, contains various promising bioactive components such as water-soluble polyphenols. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), the major polyphenol in OMWW, has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties; however, the atheroprotective effects of OMWW and HT remain to be fully understood. Here, we investigated the effect of OMWW and HT on atherogenesis.
Methods and Results
Male 8-week-old apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a western-type diet supplemented with OMWW (0.30%w/w) or HT (0.02%w/w) for 20 weeks. The control group was fed a non-supplemented diet. OMWW and HT attenuated the development of atherosclerosis in the aortic arch as determined by Sudan IV staining (P<0.01, respectively) without alteration of body weight, plasma lipid levels, and blood pressure. OMWW and HT also decreased the production of oxidative stress (P<0.01, respectively) and the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (e.g., NOX2 and p22phox) and inflammatory molecules (e.g., IL-1β and MCP-1) in the aorta. The results of in vitro experiments demonstrated that HT inhibited the expression of these molecules that were stimulated with LPS in RAW264.7 cells, murine macrophage-like cells.
OMWW and HT similarly attenuated atherogenesis. HT is a major component of water-soluble polyphenols in OMWW, and it inhibited inflammatory activation of macrophages. Therefore, our results suggest that the atheroprotective effects of OMWW are at least partially attributable to the anti-inflammatory effects of HT.
Heart and Vessels
Springer Nature Japan