Ipragliflozin Attenuates Endothelial Dysfunction
Salim, Hotimah Masdan Tokushima University
Background: Endothelial dysfunction caused by increased oxidative stress is a critical initiator of macro- and micro-vascular disease development in diabetic patients. Ipragliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, offers a novel approach for the treatment of diabetes by enhancing urinary glucose excretion. The aim of this study was to examine whether ipragliflozin attenuates endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice.
Methods: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were treated with streptozotocin (150 mg/kg) by a single intraperitoneal injection to induce diabetes mellitus. At 3 days of injection, ipragliflozin (3 mg/kg/day) was administered via gavage for 3 weeks. Vascular function was assessed by isometric tension recording. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used for in vitro experiments. RNA and protein expression were examined by quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) and western blot, respectively. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring urine 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) level.
Results: Ipragliflozin administration significantly reduced blood glucose level (P < 0.001) and attenuated the impairment of endothelial function in diabetic mice, as determined by acetylcholine-dependent vasodilation (P < 0.001). Ipragliflozin did not alter metabolic parameters, such as body weight and food intake. Ipragliflozin administration ameliorated impaired phosphorylation of Akt and eNOSSer1177 in the abdominal aorta and reduced reactive oxygen species generation as determined by urinary excretion of 8-OHdG in diabetic mice. Furthermore, qPCR analyses demonstrated that ipragliflozin decreased the expression of inflammatory molecules [e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1] in the abdominal aorta (P < 0.05). In in vitro studies, incubation with methylglyoxal, one of the advanced glycation end products, significantly impaired phosphorylation of Akt and eNOSSer1177 (P < 0.01) and increased the expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in HUVEC.
Conclusion: Ipragliflozin improved hyperglycemia and prevented the development of endothelial dysfunction under a hyperglycemic state, at least partially by attenuation of oxidative stress.
Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Frontiers Media S.A.
Copyright © 2016 Salim, Fukuda, Yagi, Soeki, Shimabukuro and Sata. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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