Tanaka, Atsushi Saga University
Dai, Kazuoki Hiroshima City Hospital
Shibata, Yoshisato Miyazaki Medical Association Hospital
Inoue, Yohei Saga University|Miyazaki Medical Association Hospital
Ikenaga, Hiroki Hiroshima City Hospital
Kishimoto, Shinji Hiroshima City Hospital
Ogasawara, Kozue Tokushima University
Takashima, Akira Tokushima University
仁木, 敏之 Tokushima University
Arasaki, Osamu Tomishiro Central Hospital
Oshiro, Koichi Ohama Dai-ichi Hospital
Mori, Yutaka Jikei University
Ishihara, Masaharu Hyogo College of Medicine
Node, Koichi Saga University
Acute coronary syndrome
Heart rate variability
Sympathetic nervous system activity
Type 2 diabetes
Background: Little is known about clinical associations between glucose fluctuations including hypoglycemia, heart rate variability (HRV), and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in patients with acute phase of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This pilot study aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of glucose fluctuations on HRV and SNS activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with recent ACS. We also examined the effect of suppressing glucose fluctuations with miglitol on these variables.
Methods: This prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, multicenter, parallel-group comparative study included 39 T2DM patients with recent ACS, who were randomly assigned to either a miglitol group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 20). After initial 24-h Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) (Day 1), miglitol was commenced and another 24-h Holter ECG (Day 2) was recorded. In addition, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was performed throughout the Holter ECG.
Results: Although frequent episodes of subclinical hypoglycemia (≤4.44 mmo/L) during CGM were observed on Day 1 in the both groups (35% of patients in the control group and 31% in the miglitol group), glucose fluctuations were decreased and the minimum glucose level was increased with substantial reduction in the episodes of subclinical hypoglycemia to 7.7% in the miglitol group on Day 2. Holter ECG showed that the mean and maximum heart rate and mean LF/HF were increased on Day 2 in the control group, and these increases were attenuated by miglitol. When divided 24-h time periods into day-time (0700–1800 h), night-time (1800–0000 h), and bed-time (0000–0700 h), we found increased SNS activity during day-time, increased maximum heart rate during night-time, and glucose fluctuations during bed-time, which were attenuated by miglitol treatment.
Conclusions: In T2DM patients with recent ACS, glucose fluctuations with subclinical hypoglycemia were associated with alterations of HRV and SNS activity, which were mitigated by miglitol, suggesting that these pathological relationships may be a residual therapeutic target in such patients.
Springer Nature|BioMed Central
© The Author(s) 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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