Afroz, Shaista Aligarh Muslim University
Waskitho, Arief Tokushima University
satellite glial cells
calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)
nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)
Activation of the trigeminal system causes the release of various neuropeptides, cytokines, and other immune mediators. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is a potent algogenic mediator, is expressed in the peripheral sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglion (TG). It affects the inflammatory responses and pain sensitivity by modulating the activity of glial cells. The primary aim of this study was to use array analysis to investigate the effect of CGRP on the glial cells of TG in regulating nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling genes and to further check if CGRP in the TG can affect neuron-glia activation in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis. The glial cells of TG were stimulated with CGRP or Minocycline (Min) + CGRP. The effect on various genes involved in NF-κB signaling pathway was analyzed compared to no treatment control condition using a PCR array analysis. CGRP, Min + CGRP or saline was directly injected inside the TG and the effect on gene expression of Egr1, Myd88 and Akt1 and protein expression of cleaved Caspase3 (cleav Casp3) in the TG, and c-Fos and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the spinal section containing trigeminal nucleus caudalis was analyzed. Results showed that CGRP stimulation resulted in the modulation of several genes involved in the interleukin 1 signaling pathway and some genes of the tumor necrosis factor pathway. Minocycline pre-treatment resulted in the modulation of several genes in the glial cells, including anti-inflammatory genes, and neuronal activation markers. A mild increase in cleav Casp3 expression in TG and c-Fos and GFAP in the spinal trigeminal nucleus of CGRP injected animals was observed. These data provide evidence that glial cells can participate in neuroimmune interaction due to CGRP in the TG via NF-κB signaling pathway.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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