Sun, Luchuanyang Nagasaki University
Miyaji, Nobuyuki Toyo Koso Kagaku
Yang, Min Nagasaki University
Mills, Edward M. University of Texas at Austin
Taniyama, Shigeto Nagasaki University
Li, Jifeng Weihai Lida Biological Technology
Shi, Jie Weihai Lida Biological Technology
Tachibana, Katsuyasu Nagasaki University
Astaxanthin (AX) is a carotenoid that exerts potent antioxidant activity and acts in the lipid bilayer. This study aimed to investigate the effects of AX on muscle-atrophy-mediated disturbance of mitochondria, which have a lipid bilayer. Tail suspension was used to establish a muscle-atrophied mouse model. AX diet fed to tail-suspension mice prevented loss of muscle weight, inhibited the decrease of myofiber size, and restrained the increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in the soleus muscle. Additionally, AX improved downregulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and III in the soleus muscle after tail suspension. Meanwhile, AX promoted mitochondrial biogenesis by upregulating the expressions of adenosine 5′-monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) α-1, peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and creatine kinase in mitochondrial (Ckmt) 2 in the soleus muscle of tail-suspension mice. To confirm the AX phenotype in the soleus muscle, we examined its effects on mitochondria using Sol8 myotubes derived from the soleus muscle. We found that AX was preferentially detected in the mitochondrial fraction; it significantly suppressed mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Sol8 myotubes. Moreover, AX inhibited the activation of caspase 3 via inhibiting the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol in antimycin A–treated Sol8 myotubes. These results suggested that AX protected the functional stability of mitochondria, alleviated mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, and thus, prevented muscle atrophy.
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