Photoantifungal action of ferulic acid
Kunimi, H. Tokushima University
pyruvate kinase 1
To examine the antifungal action of photocombination treatment with ferulic acid (FA) and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light (wavelength, 365 nm) by investigating associated changes in cellular functions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Methods and Results
When pre-incubation of yeast cells with FA was extended from 0.5 to 10 min, its photofungicidal activity increased. Flow cytometry analysis of stained live and dead cells revealed that 10-min UV-A exposure combined with FA (1 mg ml-1) induced a ~ 99.9% decrease in cell viability although maintaining cell membrane integrity when compared with pre-exposure samples. When morphological and biochemical analysis were performed, treated cells exhibited an intact cell surface and oxidative DNA damage similar to control cells. Photocombination treatment induced cellular proteins oxidation, as shown by 2.3-fold increasing in immunostaining levels of ~49-kDa carbonylated proteins compared with pre-irradiation samples. Pyruvate kinase 1 (PK1) was identified by proteomics analysis as a candidate protein whose levels was affected by photocombination treatment. Moreover, intracellular ATP levels decreased following FA treatment both in darkness and with UV-A irradiation, thus suggesting a possible FA-induced delay in cell growth.
FA functions within the cytoplasmic membrane; addition of UV-A exposure induces increased oxidative modifications of cytosolic proteins such as PK1, which functions in ATP generation, without causing detectable genotoxicity, thus triggering inactivation of yeast cells.
Significance and Impact of Study
Microbial contamination is a serious problem that diminishes the quality of fruits and vegetables. Combining light exposure with food-grade phenolic acids such as FA is a promising disinfection technology for applications in agriculture and food processing. However, the mode of photofungicidal action of FA with UV-A light remains unclear. This study is the first to elucidate the mechanism using S. cerevisiae. Moreover, proteomics analyses identified a specific cytosolic protein, PK1, which is oxidatively modified by photocombination treatment.
Journal of Applied Microbiology
The Society for Applied Microbiology|John Wiley & Sons
This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Shirai, A., Kunimi, H. & Tsuchiya, K. (2022) Antifungal action of the combination of ferulic acid and ultraviolet-A irradiation against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 132, 2957– 2967., which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.15407. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.