Problem Behavior in Children and Medicalization : Based on Examination of Medical Texts from the 1960s to the 2010s
吉田, 耕平 東北文教大学
佐藤, 文哉 たちばな学苑
Problem behavior in children
This paper covers the period of since the 1960s through the 2010s, tracing the process of interpreting ADHD as problem behavior in children through the administration of medication such as psychotropic drugs, from the perspective of Conrad and Schneider’s medicalization theory (Conrad and Schneider 1992=2003). Using PubMed—-a database of medical papers form around the world--and the Japan Medical Abstracts Society website, which is Japan’s leading medical paper database, we surveyed the number of papers on ADHD as well as trends in the field, comparing content. We also searched LD, a subject closely related to the topic of ADHD, adding diachronic analysis.
To ascertain the source of interest on the part of medical personnel regarding ADHD, we scrutinized medical information on PubMed. This process revealed that discussions on ADHD began in the latter half of the 1960s to the 1980, followed by increased research on ADHD starting in the latter half of the 1990s.
In the process of organizing previous research, we ascertained the trajectory of how diagnosis of ADHD and its treatment using psychotropic drug therapy--though previously only available in the U.S.—was subsequently made available in other countries such as the U.K., Canada, and Australia as of the 1990s. We further determined that in the U.S. it was considered a problem that the percentage of foster care children being treated with psychotropic drugs was greater than for children not in foster care.
In addition, a survey of articles found on the Japan Medical Abstracts Society website concerned primarily with changes in attitudes of medical professionals regarding problem behavior in children in Japan indicated a shift in interest on the part of medical personnel from the 1980s to the 1990s from MBD to LD. This was clearly a different trajectory from that taking place in the U.S..
Meanwhile, due to the impact of internationalization of the concepts of ADHD, in Japan as well, problem behavior in children and ADHD were once again linked starting in the latter 1990s—-and the concept of ADHD also drew attention from society in general. As of the 2000s, medical professionals began to discuss theories asserting that children who were abused by their parents exhibited symptoms similar to those with ADHD. This can be considered the beginning of theories pertaining to ADHD and social protection that continue to this day.
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