Perivascular Adipose Tissue and Atherosclerosis
Tanaka, Kimie The University of Tokyo
perivascular adipose tissue
epicardial adipose tissue
Traditionally, it is believed that white adipose tissues serve as energy storage, heat insulation, and mechanical cushion, whereas non-shivering thermogenesis occurs in brown adipose tissue. Recent evidence revealed that adipose tissue secretes many types of cytokines, called as adipocytokines, which modulate glucose metabolism, lipid profile, appetite, fibrinolysis, blood pressure, and inflammation. Most of the arteries are surrounded by perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). PVAT has been thought to be simply a structurally supportive tissue for vasculature. However, recent studies showed that PVAT influences vasodilation and vasocontraction, suggesting that PVAT regulates vascular tone and diameter. Adipocytokines secreted from PVAT appear to have direct access to the adjacent arterial wall by diffusion or via vasa vasorum. In fact, PVAT around atherosclerotic lesions and mechanically-injured arteries displayed inflammatory cytokine profiles, suggesting that PVAT functions to promote vascular lesion formation. Many clinical studies revealed that increased accumulation of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), which surrounds coronary arteries, is associated with coronary artery disease. In this review article, we will summarize recent findings about potential roles of PVAT in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, particularly focusing on a series of basic and clinical studies from our laboratory.
Frontiers in Physiology
Frontiers Media S.A.
© 2018 Tanaka and Sata. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY)( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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