Effects of esaxerenone on insulin sensitivity
Bavuu, Oyunbileg Tokushima University
Ganbaatar, Byambasuren Tokushima University
Background: Esaxerenone is a novel, non-steroidal selective mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blocker. MR activation plays a crucial role in the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of esaxerenone on various metabolic parameters in mice.
Methods: Esaxerenone (3 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to high-fat diet (HFD)-fed male C57BL/6 mice. Mice fed a normal diet (ND) served as controls. Glucose and insulin tolerance, plasma lipid levels, and transaminase levels were assessed as metabolic parameters. Macrophage accumulation in the adipose tissue was evaluated using histological analysis. 3T3-L1 adipocytes, HepG2 cells, and C2C12 myotubes were used for in vitro experiments. Gene expression and insulin signaling were examined using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively.
Results: HFD successfully induced insulin resistance compared with that in ND. Esaxerenone ameliorated insulin resistance (P < 0.05) without altering other metabolic parameters, such as the lipid profile. Esaxerenone administration tended to decrease plasma transaminase levels compared with those in the non-treated group. In the adipose tissue, esaxerenone decreased macrophage accumulation (P < 0.05) and increased the expression levels of adiponectin and PPARγ. Aldosterone significantly decreased the expression levels of PPARγ and adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, aldosterone attenuated insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, HepG2 cells, and C2C12 myotubes in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). These effects were ameliorated by pretreatment with esaxerenone.
Conclusion: Esaxerenone ameliorated insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. Reduction of inflammation and improvement in insulin signaling may underlie the beneficial effects of esaxerenone.
European Journal of Pharmacology
© 2022. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/