Yao, Dengfu Division of Enzyme Chemistry, Institute for Enzyme Research, The University of Tokushima|Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital, Nantong Medical College
桒島, 正道 Department of Laboratory Medicine, The University of Tokushima School of Medicine
nitric oxide synthase
The pathogenesis of influenza encephalopathy or encephalitis is poorly understood. This review summarizes our recent studies of the roles played by inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), adhesion molecules and mini-plasmin in influenza encephalitis. After the intranasal infection of newborn mice with the non-neurotropic strain of influenza A virus (IAV) Aichi/2/68/H3N2, encephalitis and severe brain edema were observed within 3-5 days. IAV-RNA and abnormalities in the blood-brain barrier permeability were detected in association with an increase in them RNA expressions of endothelin-1, iNOS, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, the accumulation in the brain capillaries of mini-plasmin, which proteolytically induces the viral envelope fusion activity and allows the virus to enter the cells, changes the brain from non-susceptible to susceptible to non-neurotropic IAV multiplication. The accumulation of mini-plasmin was markedly greater in newborn mice with an impaired mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. These inflammatory mediators and the accumulation of mini-plasmin in the brain may play an important role in the onset and progression of IAV encephalitis.
The journal of medical investigation : JMI
jmi_50_1-2_1.pdf 205 KB